Please consider submitting a story about a powerful teaching moment, a reflection about a current issue facing social studies teachers, results of an action research project, or a review of a resource you have found exceptionally useful in your practice. We want to hear from YOU! The Georgia Social Studies Journal is an internationally recognized, peer-reviewed online journal that aims to foster critical discussion of teaching and learning in PK social studies. We understand social studies to include various disciplinary strands history, economics, geography, political science as well as social education learning about self in relation to others in communities large and small.
Social influence Social influence is an overarching term given to describe the persuasive effects people have on each other. It is seen as a fundamental value in social psychology and overlaps considerably with research on attitudes and persuasion. The three main areas of social influence include: Social influence is also closely related to the study of group dynamics, as most principles of influence are strongest when they take place in social groups.
The first major area of social influence is conformity. Conformity is defined as the tendency to act or think like other members of a group. The identity of members within a group, i. Individual variation among group members plays a key role in the dynamic of how willing people will be to conform.
In the Asch conformity experimentspeople frequently followed the majority judgment, even when the majority was objectively wrong. The second major area of social influence research is compliance. Compliance refers to any change in behavior that is due to a request or suggestion from another person.
The foot-in-the-door technique is a compliance method in which the persuader requests a small favor and then follows up with requesting a larger favor, e.
A related trick is the bait and switch. This is a prediction that, in being made, actually causes itself to become true. For example, in the stock marketif it is widely believed that a crash is imminent, investors may lose confidence, sell most of their stock, and thus actually cause the crash.
Similarly, people may expect hostility in others and actually induce this hostility by their own behavior. Group dynamics A group can be defined as two or more individuals that are connected to each another by social relationships.
They have a number of emergent qualities that distinguish them from aggregates: Implicit rules and expectations for group members to follow, e. Implicit rules and expectations for specific members within the group, e. Patterns of liking within the group, and also differences in prestige or status, e.
Temporary groups and aggregates share few or none of these features, and do not qualify as true social groups. People waiting in line to get on a bus, for example, do not constitute a group. To a large extent, humans define themselves by the group memberships which form their social identity. The shared social identity of individuals within a group influences intergroup behavior, the way in which groups behave towards and perceive each other.
These perceptions and behaviors in turn define the social identity of individuals within the interacting groups. The tendency to define oneself by membership in a group may lead to intergroup discrimination, which involves favorable perceptions and behaviors directed towards the in-group, but negative perceptions and behaviors directed towards the out-group.
Groups often moderate and improve decision making ,[ citation needed ] and are frequently relied upon for these benefits, such as in committees and juries. A number of group biases, however, can interfere with effective decision making. For example, group polarization, formerly known as the "risky shift," occurs when people polarize their views in a more extreme direction after group discussion.
More problematic is the phenomenon of groupthink. This is a collective thinking defect that is characterized by a premature consensus or an incorrect assumption of consensus, caused by members of a group failing to promote views which are not consistent with the views of other members.
Groupthink occurs in a variety of situations, including isolation of a group and the presence of a highly directive leader. Janis offered the Bay of Pigs Invasion as a historical case of groupthink. Social facilitation, for example, is a tendency to work harder and faster in the presence of others.
Social loafing is common when the task is considered unimportant and individual contributions are not easy to see. An important concept in this area is deindividuationa reduced state of self-awareness that can be caused by feelings of anonymity.
Deindividuation is associated with uninhibited and sometimes dangerous behavior. It is common in crowds and mobs, but it can also be caused by a disguise, a uniform, alcohol, dark environments, or online anonymity. This refers to all forces that lead people to like each other, establish relationships, and in some cases fall in love.
Several general principles of attraction have been discovered by social psychologists, but many still continue to experiment and do research to find out more. One of the most important factors in interpersonal attraction is how similar two particular people are. The more similar two people are in general attitudes, backgrounds, environments, worldviews, and other traits, the more probable an attraction is possible.
Later on, similarity and other compatibility factors become more important, and the type of love people experience shifts from passionate to companionate. Robert Sternberg has suggested that there are actually three components of love:The Department of Premier and Cabinet (DPAC) is a central agency of the Tasmanian State Government.
DPAC provides a broad range of services to Cabinet, other members of Parliament, government agencies and the community. Biography. Erik Erikson was born in Frankfurt, Germany, on June 15, There is a little mystery about his heritage: His biological father was an unnamed Danish man who abandoned Erik's mother before he was born.
Connectivity First Evidence That Social Bots Play a Major Role in Spreading Fake News Automated accounts are being programmed to spread fake news, according to the first systematic study of the. The Mission of the Georgia Council for the Social Studies is to advocate for, support, and celebrate the advancement of quality social studies teaching for Georgia students.
A great resource library takes time to build. Check back frequently as we fill the shelves. The Social Studies Frameworks provide one way that teachers, schools, and districts might organize and teach the Georgia Standards of Excellence (GSE) within units.
Connectivity First Evidence That Social Bots Play a Major Role in Spreading Fake News Automated accounts are being programmed to spread fake news, according to the first systematic study of the.